The Digital Media Project  

Source

L. Chiariglione

Date

2004/09/18

Title

Analysis of TRUs identified by DMP

No.

0179/AHG02

 

 

Analysis of Traditional Rights and Usages (TRU) identified by DMP

 

Note: This document is based on DMP0177. The “Roles/Advamtages/Disadvantages” column has been split in 3 colunms: Roles, Advamtages and Disadvantages.

 

 

The Digital Media Project (DMP) is a not-for-profit organisation registered in Geneva with the mission to  “promote continuing successful development, deployment and use of Digital Media that respect the rights of creators and rights holders to exploit their works, the wish of end users to fully enjoy the benefits of Digital Media and the interests of various value-chain players to provide products and services, according to the principles laid down in the Digital Media Manifesto”.

 

DMP has identified “Interoperable Digital Rights Management (DRM)” as the technology whose deployment can further its statutory goals and has developed a work plan whose current version foresees, inter alia, the development and publication of 

 

1.      Technical Specification for Portable Audio and Video (PAV) Devices in April 2005

2.      Technical Specifications for Interoperable DRM Platform (IDP) and Interoperable End-user Devices (IED) in October 2005

3.      Recommended Practices for End-to-End Conformance (EEC) in July 2006.

 

In July 2004 DMP has already issued a Call for Proposals (CfP) on “Portable Audio and Video (PAV) Devices”, relevant to point 1. above and is planning to issue another CfP on “Interoperable DRM Platform (IDP) and Interoperable End-User Devices (IED)” relevant to poiny 2. above. The latter specifications will extend the functionalities of the PAV specification.

 

In spite of the value DMP recognises to Interoperable DRM as the main digital media-enabling technology, DMP has noted that DRM has the potential to substantially alter the balance that has been in existance in the analogue world between different Users of Content, in particular when one of them is the End-User. If not appropriately remedied, this imbalance may lead to a significant reduction of the scope of Traditional Rights and Usages (TRU) of Users. A possible outcome is the outright rejection of the new technology on the part of some Users, in particular End-Users.

 

It should be noted that DMP is not claiming that an established TRU necessarily implies a right of a User to a particular Use of digital media but simply that, if Users have found a particular Use advantageous in the analogue domain they are probably interested to continue exercising that Use in the digital domain as well. Leveraging on this interest may provide opportunities for new “Digital Media Business Models” that are attractive to Users but are respectful of the rights of those who have created Works and invested in making Content. DMP has identified a number of TRUs and analysed their nature.

 

Therefore DMP expects that, to make DRM-enabled digital media successful, individual jurisdictions will determine which TRUs shall mandatorily be supported by IDPs and IEDs operating under their jurisdiction and which TRUs can be left to private negotiations between Users. This is a challenging task because it requires blending legal and social knowledge with in-depth knowledge of the highly sophisticated and unusual DRM technologies.

 

Acknowledging this hurdle DMP has, as part of its work plan, decided to develop and publish

 

4.      Recommended Action on Traditional Rights and Usages (TRU) in October 2005

 

Such a document would have the purpose of facilitating the deployment and adoption of Interoperable DRM technologies based on DMP Technical Specifications by providing a neutral description of the potential problems arising in their use and designing scenarios enabled by specific technical and legal choices. The target audience of the document would be specific legislative environments to help them produce the most appropriate regulations of DMP IDPs and IEDs.

 

The present document is an initial draft of a Call for Contributions that DMP plans to issue on 2004/10/29. The Call will contain a number of scenarios where the effect on the TRUs of the more relevant Value-Chain Users is analysed.

 

This document represents work in progress. It will become a Call for Contributions on Mapping of Traditional Rights and Usages to the digital space published by DMP at its 4th General Assembly held in Barcelona (ES) on 27-29 October 2004. Anybody is invited to review the TRUs analysed in this document, make comments on the suggested scenarios, study new scenarios or analyse new TRUs. Some cases needing an early analysis are proposed in this document. Annex A gives a list of Value-Chain Users identified by DMP. Note that words beginning with a capital letter are defined in the DMP Terminology.

 

Those wishing to comment on or contribute requirements to this document should forward their submissions to Leonardo Chiariglione (leonardo@chiariglione.org). Submissions will be discussed by the Ad hoc Group on Traditional Rights and Usages (TRU) Call for Contributions. To subscribe to the ad hoc group reflector follow the instructions.

 

 

Disclaimer

DMP makes explicit disclaimer that the scenarios described in this document do not represent the official view of DMP on how a specific TRUs should be supported. The scenarios are simply provided for the purpose of stimulating a discussion.

 

 

Table of Contents

1      TRU #01 to quote.

2      TRU #02 to make personal copy.

3      TRU #03 to space shift content

4      TRU #04 to time shift content

5      TRU #05 to make playback Device.

6      TRU #07 to use content whose copyright has expired.

7      TRU #09 to publish content anonymously.

8      TRU #10 to Use Content anonymously.

9      TRU #12 to privacy.

10        TRU #13 to annotate for personal use.

11        TRU #14 to edit for personal use.

12        TRU #18 to apply a rating to a piece of content

13        TRU #25 of "First sale"/Personal loan.

14        TRU #28 of time based advertising.

15        TRU #55 to access content in libraries.

16        TRU #58 to choose the delivery system..

17        TRU #61 of communication to the public.

 

1          TRU #01 to quote

Description

TRU to reproduce limited portions of another author's work, for a variety of reasons, and in a variety of ways usually involving some attribution. Permission from the original author is not required, however exercise of the quote TRU exposes the quoting author to possible legal challenges.

1.1        Scenario #1:

Type of support

1.      Content is Released as Governed Content

2.      “Quote Governed-Content” is technically supported

3.      Public Authorities determine

·        The types of Governed Content that can be Quoted

·        The Users who have the Right to acquire a License to Quote

·        The types of Licenses that can be acquired

·        The obligation of the Users making a Quote, e.g.

                                                   i.      Notify Author/Performer etc. that a Quote is being made

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

AUT

 

·         

·        Know to what extent End-Users can Quote their Works

·        Can Quote another Author’s Content when creating new Work

·        Quotes promote Works

·         

PRF

 

·         

·        Know to what extent End-Users can Quote their Content

·        Quotes promote Content

·         

CMS

·         

·        End-Users cannot misuse Quote of the Works administered by them (e.g. 5s ringtone)

·        Quotes promote Works

·         

PRD

·        Release Governed Content

·        Quotes promote Content

·        End-Users cannot misuse Quote of their Content

·         

PBL

·        Release Governed Content

·        Quotes promote Content

·        End-Users cannot misuse Quote of their Content

·         

ENU

 

·         

·        Use Content as set by the Rights Expressions and as set by legislation, e.g.

o       An End-User Quotes a news clip

·         

PBA

·        Set general rules concerning Quote

·         

·         

1.2        Scenario #2

Type of support

1.     

2.     

3.     

4.     

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

2          TRU #02 to make personal copy

Description

This TRU allows certain acts that pertain to exclusive right of reproduction without requesting prior authorization.
Two factors are taken into account: the user (individual, some institutions) and/or the purpose of the use (education, non commercial…) to fall under the exception scope and avoid copyright infringement.

2.1.1        Scenario #1

Type of support

1.      Content is Released as Governed Content

2.      Governed Content can be technically Used on all End-User Devices with similar features

3.      Authorised Domains can be set up easily by End-Users

4.      End-Users can Backup Governed Content

5.      Legislation sets bounds on Rights Expressions, e.g.

o       Governed Content can be Moved within Authorised Domains

o       Governed Content can be Backed up

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

CMS

·         

·        Private copies cannot be misused

·        Content can only be promoted directly (or by word of mouth)

PRD

 

·         

·        Private copies cannot be misused

·        Content can only be promoted directly (or by word of mouth)

PBL

·         

·        Private copies cannot be misused

·        Content can only be promoted directly (or by word of mouth)

ENU

 

·         

·        Can Use Content with the similar possibilities as offered by analogue private copy

·         

PBA

·        Set general rules of Copy

·         

·         

2.2        Scenario #2

Type of support

1.     

2.     

3.     

4.     

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

3          TRU #03 to space shift content

Description

The ability for an End-User to Use his Content wherever he is.

3.1        Scenario #1

Type of support

1.      Content is Released as Governed Content with a License for Personal Use

2.      Governed Content can be technically Used on all End-User Devices with similar features

3.      Public Authorities set bounds on Rights Expressions, e.g.

a.       An End-User can acquire Content for personal Use (i.e. not bound to be Used on a specific Device)

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

ENU

 

·         

·        Can Use Governed Content with similar possibilities as for  analogue content, e.g.

o       Can Use Governed Content on any Device Used by the End-User

·         

PBA

·        Set general rules of Content Use

·         

·         

3.2        Scenario #2

Type of support

1.     

2.     

3.     

4.     

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

4          TRU #04 to time shift content

Description

The ability for an End-User to Use Content at a different time than when it was originally made available.

4.1        Scenario #1

Type of support

1.      Content is Released as Governed Content

2.      Public Authorities set bounds on Rights Expressions, e.g.

a.       An End-User can Use Governed Content at the time of his choice, but different rules may apply to different types of Content

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

ENU

 

·        Use Governed Content as set by Rights Expressions within the bounds set by Public Authorities

·         

·         

PBA

·        Set the general rules of time-shifting

·         

·         

4.2        Scenario #2

Type of support

1.     

2.         

3.         

4.         

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

5          TRU #05 to make playback Device

Description

The ability to manufacture or otherwise create devices for accessing and using content.

5.1        Scenario #1

Type of support

1.      Content is released as Governed Content

2.      Specifications to make Devices are publicly available

3.      Technologies to make Devices can be licensed at reasonable and non-discriminatory (RAND) terms and conditions

4.      Device Certification is obtainable from third parties

5.      Devices can be sold through normal channels

6.      Public Authorities set general rules of

a.       Device Conformance

b.      Revocation of Devices

c.      

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

RTL

·        Release Governed Content to Authenticated Devices

·         

·         

TLP

·        License technologies to Device Manufacturers

·         

·         

DVM

·        Make Devices

·        Can obtain license of relevant technologies

·         

ENU

 

·        Use Governed Content according to the Rights Expressions

·        Purchase Devices from multiple Device Manufacturers

·        Access Governed Content from multiple sources

·         

PBA

·        Set general rules of Device Conformance

·         

·         

5.2        Scenario #2

Type of support

1.     

2.     

3.     

4.     

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

6          TRU #07 to use content whose copyright has expired

Description

When copyright is expired content can be freely used, e.g. read, copied, published, changed etc.

6.1        Scenario #1

Type of support

1.      Content is Released as Governed Content

2.      Public Authorities mandate registration of cleartext Content with a Repository

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

PRD

·         

·         

·        Register cleartext Content

PBL

·         

·         

·        Register cleartext Content

RPS

·        Provide Access to Content whose copyright has expired

·         

·         

ENU

 

·        Use Content as set by the Rights Expressions while copyright holds

·        Access Content after copyright expiry, e.g. from Repositories

·         

PBA

·        Public Authorities set general rules to Access Content whose copyrighted is expired

·         

·         

6.2        Scenario #2

Type of support

1.     

2.     

3.     

4.     

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

7          TRU #09 to publish content anonymously

Description

To publish content without revealing the identity of the Author.

7.1        Scenario #1

Type of support

1.       

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

8          TRU #10 to Use Content anonymously

Description

To use content without revealing the identity of the end-user

8.1        Scenario #1

Type of support

1.      Content is Released as Governed Content

2.      Public Authorities determine

·        The extent of anonymity of Content Use that End-Users can request, possibly depending on the nature of Content

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

MNP

·         

·         

·        Negotiate with End-Users use that will be made of User and Use Data

RTL

·         

·         

·        License Content with anonymous Use License, if requested

ENU

·         

·        Get License for anonymous Use, if requested

·         

PBA

·        Determine general rules for anonymous Use of Governed Content

·         

·         

8.2        Scenario #2

Type of support

1.     

2.     

3.     

4.     

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

9          TRU #12 to privacy

Description

The border beyond which intrusion is not allowed and the extent to which private information can be used.

9.1        Scenario #1

Type of support

1.      Content is Released as Governed Content

2.      Public Authorities determine

a.       End-User information that can be requested

b.      Use of User and Use information acquired

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

MNP

·         

·         

·        Use of User and Use Data as determined by Public Authorities

RTL

·         

·         

·        Request User and Use Data as determined by Public Authorities

ENU

·         

·        Receives guarantee that his User and Use Data are used according to law

·        Supply requested User and Use Data

PBA

·        Public Authorities set general rules regarding use of User and Use Data

·         

·         

9.2        Scenario #2

Type of support

1.     

2.     

3.     

4.     

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

10     TRU #13 to annotate for personal use

Description

The TRU to augment media with additional information for personal use. The result could be regarded as a limited form of derivative work. However, whilst the publication of derivative works is typically restricted by copyright, end-users have not traditionally been restricted from making annotations for personal use.

10.1    Scenario #1

Type of support

1.      Content is Released as Governed Content

2.      “Annotate Governed-Content” is technically supported

3.      Public Authorities determine the general rules of Content Use, e.g.

a.       End-Users can acquire Content with an “Annotation” License

b.      Content sharing in Authorised Domains

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

CMS

·         

·        Possible revenues from “Annotation” Licenses

·         

PRD

·         

·        Possible revenues from “Annotation” Licenses

·         

Publishers

·         

·        Possible revenues from “Annotation” Licenses

·         

End-users

·         

·        Annotate (and possibly share within an Authorised Domain)

·         

Public Authorities

·        Set general rules of Annotation

·        Achieve social ends (support to Annotate)

·         

10.2    Scenario #2

Type of support

1.     

2.     

3.     

4.     

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

11     TRU #14 to edit for personal use

Description

The end-user may edit, reorganise, mix or transform content as he chooses as long as he does not (re)distribute the edited results.

11.1    Scenario #1

Type of support

1.      Content is Released as Governed Content

2.      “Editing Governed-Content” is technically supported

3.      Public Authorities determine the general rules of editing for personal use, e.g.

a.       Types of Content

b.      Types of Uses

c.       Types of Use Context (e.g. educational purposes)

d.      Content sharing in Authorised Domains

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

CMS

·         

·        Possible revenues from “Edit” Licenses

·         

PRD

·         

·        Possible revenues from “Edit” Licenses

·         

PBL

·         

·        Possible revenues from “Edit” Licenses

·         

ENU

·         

·        Edit (and possibly share within an Authorised Domain)

·         

PBA

·        Set general rules of Edit

·        Achieve social ends (support to Edit)

·         

11.2    Scenario #2

Type of support

1.     

2.     

3.     

4.     

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

12     TRU #18 to apply a rating to a piece of content

Description

An individual, organisation, industry or government can apply a rating on some applicable scale to content.

12.1    Scenario #1

Type of support

1.      Content is Released as Governed Content

2.      Ratings can be expressed in a License

3.      Public Authorities determine rules to prevent forms of manipulation using ratings

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

MKT

·        Set ratings to Content

·         

·         

AGG

·        Set ratings to Content

·         

·         

RTL

·         

·        Use ratings in Licenses

·         

PBA

·        Determine general rules related to use of ratings in Licenses

·         

·         

12.2    Scenario #2

Type of support

1.     

2.     

3.     

4.     

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

13     TRU #25 of "First sale"/Personal loan

Description

After the initial purchase, the purchased digital media may be disposed of in any way the purchaser chooses.  Examples are, re-selling, loaning, giving away.

13.1    Scenario #1

Type of support

No support has been found.

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

13.2    Scenario #2

Type of support

1.     

2.     

3.     

4.     

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

14     TRU #28 of time based advertising

Description

The ability to include periodic advertisements during digital media access..

14.1    Scenario #1

Type of support

1.       

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

 

·         

·         

·         

15     TRU #55 to access content in libraries

Description

The ability to access content in libraries when it is available. In the digital space libraries are called Repositories.

15.1    Scenario #1

Type of support

2.      Repositories supply

a.       Basic Content search services

b.      Pointers to Content offered by other sources are provided

c.       Content as Governed Content when no other source is available

d.      Content for which they hold the copyright

e.       Content as cleartext Content when copyright is expired

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

RPS

·        Offer End-Users means to Access “all” Content

·         

·         

RTL

·         

·        Content is promoted by Repositories

·         

ENU

·         

·        Can Access “all” Content, not necessarily for free

·        Can Access for free certain types of Content or is he is a certain type of User

·         

PBA

·        Offer Access to Content in the Repositories to particular classes of Users

·         

·         

15.2    Scenario #2

Type of support

1.     

2.     

3.     

4.     

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

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16     TRU #58 to choose the delivery system

Description

To use services independently of the connectivity provider.

16.1    Scenario #1

Type of support

1.       

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

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17     TRU #61 of communication to the public

Description

Appears in the WCT/WPPT (WIPO Copyright Treaty and WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty) as an Internet-friendly way to give authors protection for Internet-based "performances" or data transfers by wire or wirelessly to individuals consuming the data at a time of their own choosing, related to TRU to technological access restrictions and TRU reproduction.

17.1    Scenario #1

Type of support

1.       

 

Roles of and Advantages/Disadvantages for Value-Chain Users

 

VCU

Roles

Adv.

Disadv.

 

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Annex A

 

#  

Value-chain User

Acr.

Definition

1.       

Author

AUT

A User who creates Works

2.       

Performer

PRF

A User who Uses Works to make Content

3.       

Collective Management Society

CMS

A User who provides collective representation to its member, e.g. Authors, Performers, Publishers etc.

4.       

Producer

PRD

A User who produces Content

5.       

Publisher

PBL

A User who makes Content available to the public

6.       

Syndicator

SND

A User who manages and provides Content to Retailers using a variety of  purchase options

7.       

Metadata Service provider

MTP

A User who recognises, assigns, delivers and processes structured metadata

8.       

Mediation Service provider

MDP

A User who provides mediator/agent Services to broker “closed” information such as actor identity

9.       

Resolution Service provider

RSP

A User who provides the Service of mapping disparate sets of Metadata

10.   

Repository

RPS

A User who offers Services to name, describe, locate, access, manage, and secure information about Content

11.   

Monitoring Service provider

MNP

A User who provides Use Data information in aggregated form

12.   

Marketer

MKT

A User who provides promotional, sale enhancement, brand enhancement and Merchandising Services

13.   

Aggregator

AGG

A User who provides procuring, packaging, presenting, cataloguing, archiving, indexing and promoting Services typically to Retailers

14.   

Retailer

RTL

A User who sells or Licenses Content to an End-user

15.   

Technology licensing provider

TLP

A User who provides Device Manufacturers and Platform providers with a license to utilise patented technology to make Devices and Platforms

16.   

Device Manufacturer

DVM

A User who manufactures or assembles hardware and/or software components to make Devices

17.   

Connectivity provider

CNP

A User who provides point-to-point or point-to-multipoint connectivity between Users

18.   

Network Service provider

NTP

A User who provides IP (or equivalent) services and typically various other services above it, e.g. guarantee of quality of service

19.   

Platform Service provider

PLP

A User who provides services on (parts of) the technology infrastructure of a Value-chain

20.   

Security provider

SCP

A User who provides technologies and services related to the security technologies and all levels of relevant computer and network security solutions

21.   

Certificate Authority

CRA

A User who issues digital certificates used to create digital signatures and public-private key pair

22.   

Conformance certification provider

CCP

A User who provides conformance, robustness and encoding rules along with certification of satisfying same.

23.   

Clearing House

CLH

A User who collects Value Expressions from other Users to distribute to Right Holders for the purchase of Use Rights over a given instance of Content

24.   

Financial Service provider

FSP

A User who provides the infrastructure for financial transactions, and accept deposits and channel the money into lending activities

25.   

End-user

ENU

The last User in a Value-chain

26.   

Reseller

RSL A User who possesses the Right, acquired by sale, License or other transfer, to control the disposition and transfer of Content from End-users to different End-users

27.   

Public Authority

PBA

A User who provides rules relating to the Use of Content and taxation on transactions related to Content.