The Digital Media Project  

Source

DMP TRU Workshop

Date:

2004/04/30

Title

List of Digital Media Business Models

No.

0067/Los Angeles

 

List of Digital Media Business Models

 

#

DMBM

01

Content distribution using peer-to-peer networks

02

Content distribution via file sharing based on voluntary collective licensing

03

Open Distribution Framework

04

Location based entertainment WiFi NetKiosk

05

Broadcasting of open governed content

06

Traditional public and commercial service broadcasting

07

Financing content production by collecting loans from end-users

08

Distribution of audio-video content for consumption on portable devices

09

Distribution of digital content by attaching end-user reference to the content

10

Digital conservatory

 

 

01

Criteria

Description

1.

Name of DMBM

Content distribution using peer-to-peer networks

2.

Summary description of DMBM

 

3.

Example usages of DMBM

 

4.

DEUs related to this DMBM

 

5.

Enabling technologies

 

6.

Benefits of DMBM

 

7.

Requirements

 

8

References

 

02

Criteria

Description

1.

Name of DMBM

Content distribution via file sharing based on voluntary collective licensing

2.

Summary description of DMBM

Music fans who share music files over the internet pay a voluntary license fee to a collecting society. In exchange they are free to download and share music files using the hardware and software platforms they like. Based on the relative popularity of the music, the money collected is divided by the collecting society between artists and rights-holders.

3.

Use records of DMBM

        Radio Broadcast: in the first half of the twentieth century, radio stations started to pay fees to collecting societies to pay off the authors of the broadcasted music.

4.

TRUs used

        TRU to make personal copy

        TRU to space shift content

        TRU to time shift content

        TRU to choose playback device

        TRU to choose the service

        TRU to choose the delivery system

        TRU to transcode

        TRU of contractual commerce

        TRU of economic exploitation

        TRU of equitable remuneration

        TRU to share content with members of a group

        TRU not to apply DRM to a piece of content

5.

DEU used

        01: content distribution via P2P networks

6.

Benefits of DMBM

        Music fans can legally access an unlimited selection of music.

        Artists and other copyright holders are fairly compensated.

        Independent artists can more easily distribute music and receive payment

        The distribution of music via P2P networks is more efficient than centralized distribution models.

7.

Requirements

        A range of paying mechanisms, e.g. direct subscription via a web interface, bundle license fee with network access (e.g. broadband internet provider, mobile phone provider), bundle license fee with network services (e.g. provided by a University to their students)

        A monitoring system to ensure the accurate division of the license fees

        Some antitrust regulation to ensure that the collective society will not abuse its market power

8

References

 “Let the music play” - White Paper, Electronic Frontier Foundation, 2004

03

Criteria

Description

1.

Name of DMBM

Open Distribution Framework

2.

Summary description of DMBM

 

3.

Example usages of DMBM

 

4.

DEUs related to this DMBM

 

5.

Enabling technologies

 

6.

Benefits of DMBM

 

7.

Requirements

 

8

References

 

04

Criteria

Description

1.

Name of DMBM

LBE DMBM WiFi NetKiosk

2.

Summary description of DMBM

The LBE interfaces with the IED such that IED-s can be expeditiously developed and such that the LBE NetKiosk will offer an extremely rich center for high-level broadband delivery, albeit centralized around the NetKiosk. To break down that name:

  • LBE - location-based entertainment, for example a fighter jet flight simulator standing on an ocean boardwalk that eats $5 dollar bills;
  • WiFi - wireless local data networks;
  • NetKiosk - download anything from anywhere 24/7 or upload your personal creations.

Note that a key issue will be privacy (inc. anonymity when possible) for LBE WiFi NetKiosk transactions.

3.

Use records of DMBM

Many high-quality arcades exist at themed entertainment centers, massive, kiosk-only, assorted, some similar to videogames like flying or car racing, some allowing group participation. It should be noted that these are often very expensive.

The LBE WiFi NetKiosk could probably be sustained in the third world by charging customers 83 cents for 5 minutes, less than a day's wage in most developing nations. A great deal of important interaction could occur, for example, if dispersed villages were able to communicate with each other by each having an affordable kiosk. There could be subsidies for worthy uses like students doing research or scholarship of the arts.

Note that use of a card or mobile phone to carry money, such as can be used for going on a ride or paying at a NetKiosk, is already a fairly common practice. For example, the San Francisco BART train's stiff paper cards with magnetic strips. It should be trivial to find an affordable way for the IED, including early IED-s devices, to "dock" at a NetKiosk in order to conduct transactions using enhanced interactivity and vivid display.

Note possible configuration that this unit could be the data hub for a quonset hut arcade, requiring only one unit to power many terminals or "rides".

Merchandise manufactured by DM fabrication devices should be branded and become subject to the laws and conventions of the analogue world.

Manufacture of merchandise could occur apart from the kiosk in a connected equipment network of kiosk peripherals. Note that peripherals could include telerobotic devices so that a famous artist in Monterey California could customise some item for a customer anywhere in the world (with a NetKiosk) in real time.

Big Video Jukebox — with 3 customer service workstation-counters: Note potential for a ruggedized and even armorized device suitable for airlift drop to remote locations (note power-supply issue). For example a semi-cylinder standing kiosk could have a high-resolution video display on its flat portion covered by a protective polycarbonate shield, with surround-sound audio provided by a tent providing darkness for viewing. The curved portion of the kiosk (like a semi-circle), could support three counters at which download/upload customers could interact with the kiosk for 83 cents each 5 minutes or some higher price. Note that the IED-s could act as a remote control for such a kiosk so that through WiFi it might be possible to have hundreds of transactions going through the NetKiosk (as a data hub) simultaneously (thanks of course to multiplexing). In essence the IED-s is the remote control for the big video jukebox. I also envision that customers could pay to have the flat screen display the selection(s) of their choice for a few hours.

4.

TRUs used

developing nations, all reproductive TRUs and Category F TRUs. TRU distribution will apply to manufactured merchandise.

5.

DEU used

This is a DEU enabler so the sky is the limit.

6.

Benefits of DMBM

LBE WiFi NetKiosk benefits everybody and is particularly suitable to developing nations.

7.

Requirements

Like Proposal for a Multipurpose IED, the LBE WiFi NetKiosk is just a hardware shell for functionality that also can travel securely over networks by software alone. Note that this software/hardware symmetry - it can go either way - was my response to Leonardo's Interoperable DRM Platform (IDP), Interoperable End-user Devices (IED) and short-term IED (IED-s).

8

References

Proposal for a Multipurpose IED
Interoperable DRM Platform (IDP), Interoperable End-user Devices (IED) and short-term IED (IED-s)

05

Criteria

Description

1.

Name of DMBM

Broadcasting of open governed content (BOGC)

2.

Summary description of DMBM

Broadcasting of governed content that is receivable by all end-users in a given broadcst footprint with support of different forms of services, e.g. public service, commercial service, subscription service.

3.

Use records of DMBM

The only form in which a form of BOCG has been implemented so far is through set top boxes equipped with the Common Interface

4.

TRUs used

         TRU #02 to make personal copy

         TRU #03 to space shift content

         TRU #04 to space shift content

         TRU #05 to make playback device

         TRU #06 to choose playback device

         TRU #19 of continued access

         TRU #28 of time based advertising

         TRU #36 of time based advertising

         TRU #51 of regional pricing

         TRU #57 to choose the service

         TRU #62 of applying technological access restrictions

         TRU #64 to compel real-time only consumption

         TRU #65TRU to restrict place of use

         TRU #66 to restrict time of use

         TRU #69 to access content of one's choice

         TRU #71 to attach playback devices of one's choice to a network

         TRU #73 to share content with members of a group

         TRU #75 to choose security

         TRU #78 contracting for middle-men to broadcast

         TRU #80 contracting for middle-men to promote

         TRU #85 to syndicate content

5.

DEU used

         01 On-line storage of large amount of digital media

         02Browsing and selecting from a large number of content

         04 Simultaneous distribution of digital media to a large number of specially selected recipients

         05 Accessing governed content with a single device

         06 Making perfect copies of content

         07 Making content accessible to anybody connected to the network

         08 Automatically assigning descriptors to content

         09 Automatically transforming content representation

         11 Making electronic transactions

         12 Authenticating a device

         14 Extracting content to create new content

         15 Assembling content to create new content

         16 Identifying and tracking physical objects

         18 Automatic extraction of features from content

         20 Identifying and monitoring content

         21 Description of human profiles (digital identity)

         22 Authenticating users

         23 Determining entitlements

         24 Content use accounting

         25 Automatic generation of an audit trail

         26 Monitoring of usage

         27 Verifying integrity of content

         28 Verifying authenticity of content

         29 Customisation of human interface

         31 Attaching information to content in a persistent way

6.

Benefits of DMBM

BOGC is a DMBM that leverages the capability of broadcasting to deliver content to an unlimited number of recipients, while letting right holders preserve control of their asset and allowing end users to exercise a wide range of TRUs

7.

Requirements

TBD

8

References

 

06

Criteria

Description

1.

Name of DMBM

Traditional public and commercial service broadcasting

2.

Summary description of DMBM

Creation, procurement and distribution of audio and video content to a mass public audience in exchange of a government-mandated fee or through advertising

3.

Example usages of DMBM

Broadly used worldwide

4.

DEUs related to this DMBM

  • 01 On-line storage of large amount of digital media
  • 02Browsing and selecting from a large number of content
  • 06 Making perfect copies of content
  • 07 Making content accessible to anybody connected to the network
  • 08 Automatically assigning descriptors to content
  • 09 Automatically transforming content representation
  • 14 Extracting content to create new content
  • 15 Assembling content to create new content
  • 16 Identifying and tracking physical objects
  • 18 Automatic extraction of features from content
  • 20 Identifying and monitoring content
  • 21 Description of human profiles (digital identity)
  • 24 Content use accounting
  • 25 Automatic generation of an audit trail
  • 26 Monitoring of usage
  • 28 Verifying authenticity of content
  • 29 Customisation of human interface

5.

Enabling technologies

 

6.

Benefits of DMBM

 

7.

Requirements

 

8

References

 

07

Criteria

Description

1.

Name of DMBM

Financing content production by collecting loans from end-users

2.

Summary description of DMBM

By giving a loan to the content producer and betting on the success of a piece of content, end-user take the position of the banker and finance the production of the work. If the artists are successful they will be rewarded in proportion to the original contribution.

3.

Example usages of DMBM

Examples in the software domain (freenet project)

4.

DEUs related to this DMBM

 

5.

Enabling technologies

 

6.

Benefits of DMBM

 

7.

Requirements

 

8

References

 

08

Criteria

Description

1.

Name of DMBM

Distribution of audio-video content for consumption on portable devices

2.

Summary description of DMBM

        Playback device that supports DMP DRM and receives content via physical media, wired and/or wireless network.  Possible option is to record and protect audio samples, personal stills and video using DMP DRM. 

        Content is played from local storage and/or streamed. 

        Content may be purchased through the device.

        Device features: large memory capacity, small size, light physical weight, light weight DRM, long battery life, low device price, content library browsing.

3.

Use records of DMBM

A variety of digital portable players such as portable DVD and MP3 players.

4.

DEU used

         02 Browsing and selecting from a large number of content

         05 Accessing governed content with a single device

         06 Making perfect copies of content

         10 Adapting content for use in different environments

         11 Making electronic transactions

         12 Authenticating a device

         20 Identifying content

         22 Authenticating users

         23 Determining entitlements

         27 Verifying integrity of content

         28 Verifying authenticity of content

         32 Encryption and decryption of content

         # The secure storage of large amounts of digital media

         # Software integrity verification and authentication

         # Use of a secure clock (conditional on content requiring it)

5.

TRUs used

         TRU #07 to use content whose copyright has expired [RQ15]

         TRU #18 to apply a rating to a piece of content [TBD]

         TRU #19 of continued access [RQ10]

         TRU #27 to make prohibited content inaccessible [TBD]

         TRU #29 for digital media rental [TBD]

         TRU #57 to choose the service [RQ61]

         TRU #58 to choose the delivery system [TBD]

         TRU #62 of applying technological access restrictions [TBD]

         TRU #68 to assign content description [TBD]

6.

Benefits of DMBM

 

7.

Requirements

         DEU #02 Browsing and selecting from a large number of content

o        Support for listing of DMP conforming content.

o        Support for meta data navigation.

         Sorting on fields

         Searching on field data

         Filtering on field data

o        Support for indicating a selection from a listing.

         DEU #05 Accessing governed content with a single device

o        Negotiation and adaptation of DRM requirements/capabilities.

o        Negotiation and adaptation of content format.

         DEU #06 Making perfect copies of content

o        Support for making a copy of the content in its original form

o        Support for indicating the authorization for making a copy

         DEU #10 Adapting content for use in different environments

o        Support the declaration of information necessary for the adaptation of content

o        Support for the communication of adaptation information

o        Support for adaptation negotiation

         DEU #11 Making electronic transactions

o        Support of a broad range of payment methods and mechanisms

         DEU #12 Authenticating a device

o        Negotiation of device authentication method.

         DEU #20 Identifying content

o        Support for the unambiguous and unique identification of content.

         DEU #22 Authenticating users

o        Negotiation of User authentication method.

         DEU #23 Determining entitlements

o        Binding entitlements to specific content

o        Binding entitlements to a specific User or groups of Users

o        Binding entitlements to a specific device or class of devices

o        Machine readable entitlements

o        Determination of entitlement authenticity and integrity.

         DEU #27 Verifying integrity of content

o        Support for detecting un-authorized changes in the content

         Support for verification of integrity

         Support for authenticating integrity verification data

         DEU #28 Verifying authenticity of content

o        Support for verifying the source of content

         DEU #32 Encryption and decryption of content

o        Support for declaring and negotiating content encryption/decryption algorithms

o        Requirements #66 – 69, #73 – 76, 79

         DEU #XX The secure storage of large amounts of digital media

o        Support for the secure local storage of large amounts of data

         DEU #XX Software integrity verification and authentication

o        Support for the digital signing and subsequent verification of code elements.

         DEU #XX Use of a secure clock (conditional on content requiring it)

o        Protocols for connecting to a source of secure time.

         TRU #07 to use content whose copyright has expired [RQ15]

o        Support for access and use DMP content whose copyright has expired

         TRU #19 of continued access [RQ10]

o        Support for continuous access to DMP content by DMP users

         TRU #57 to choose the service [RQ61]

o        Support for free choice of services independently of the media item and the license.

Requirements for the following TRUs have issues to be resolved on an expedited basis: 18, 27, 29, 58, 62, 68

8

References

 

09

Criteria

Description

1.

Name of DMBM

Distribution of digital content by attaching end-user reference to the content

2.

Summary description of DMBM

 

3.

Example usages of DMBM

 

4.

DEUs related to this DMBM

 

5.

Enabling technologies

 

6.

Benefits of DMBM

 

7.

Requirements

 

8

References

 

10

Criteria

Description

1.

Name of DMBM

Digital conservatory

2.

Summary description of DMBM

Distribution of instruction material created by extracting and assembling  pieces of licensed copyrighted recordings from classical music and combining with those recorded excerpts synthesised variants thereof

3.

Example usages of DMBM

 

4.

DEUs related to this DMBM

         01 On-line storage of large amount of digital media

         02 Browsing a digital media data base

         30 Unmodifiable storage of large amounts of digital media

         08 Automatically assigning descriptors to content

         09 Automatically transforming content representation

         13 Repurposing content

         14 Extracting content to create new content

         15 Assembling content to create new content

         19 Synthesising content

5.

Enabling technologies

 

6.

Benefits of DMBM

 

7.

Requirements

 

8

References

 

 

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